Chlorine Free Paper Issues

 

Recycled Paper Manufacturers

LISTENING STUDY: We've heard from several end users that they're afraid to use recycled paper because it would void their copier warranty. We've asked copier manufacturers if this is the case, and all of them said they didn't have language specifically prohibiting the use of recycled paper in their copiers. Do you know of any warranty language which prohibits or limits the use of recycled paper in office equipment?

"While the copier and laser printer manufacturers may not prohibit the use of recycled paper without voiding the equipment's warranty, many of them suggest that the use of recycled papers will harm the equipment and have trained their service technicians to 'warn' customers about using paper with recycled fiber content. This 'scare' tactic was started when recycled fiber was just beginning to be used in paper, before the process was optimized, and in many cases the copier and laser printer manufactures have not re-examined the recycled products to obtain accurate updated information. IP products have been tested in numerous copy machines and run as well or better than virgin fiber products." - International Paper

"No. In fact, this is the first time I have heard of the issue of recycled paper use voiding warranty of copier/printers." - Badger Paper Mills

"No." - Georgia Pacific Paper

"No." - Grays Harbor Paper, L.P.

"One of Weyerhaeuser's environmental priorities is conservation of natural resources through recycling and waste reduction. As the second largest recycler in North America, Weyerhaeuser is in a unique position to offer 'closed loop' service to our customers. We can collect their recycling at competitive prices; process and ship the collected recyclable paper to mills; use recycled fiber for our fine paper and other products; then sell those recycled paper products back to our customers. Sustainable practices like this support our customers' environmental goals and provide recycled paper that performs in a variety of copiers and printers. Since our papers are designed with minimal curl, dusting and excellent dimensional stability, they are meant to perform in current printers and copiers. The copier manufacturers will have to comment on warranty issues." - Weyerhaeuser

"No. Sometimes a copier company representative will recommend their own brand of paper. But there is no reason not to use recycled paper." - Gerry Zampini, Vice President, Sales and Marketing, Cascades Fine Paper

"Domtar does not know of any warranty language which prohibits or limits the use of recycled paper in office equipment." - Domtar, Inc.

"I am not aware of any warranty language that prohibits the use of recycled papers in equipment." - Vince Phelan, Director, Product Management and Marketing Communications, Boise Paper Solutions


LISTENING STUDY: What is your experience with the use of recycled papers in copiers and printers?

"International Paper has been producing paper with recycled fiber content for over 20 years, investing much time, money and technology with the goal of producing a sheet containing significant amounts of recycled fiber which performs in copiers and laser printers equal to a virgin sheet. Our extensive testing on both copiers and laser printers shows that our grades with recycled fiber produce the same excellent print quality and runnability as our virgin grades. Our guarantee of excellent performance is the same for our recycled and virgin grades." - International Paper

"Badger products have had an excellent performance record in copiers and printers due to the consistant quality of our manufacturing. The Envirographic brand is Badger's workhorse paper." - Badger Paper Mills

"Our experience is that recycled paper is comparable to virgin paper with respect to runnability and image quality. In the early 90's some suppliers experienced difficulty with "sticky" content that led to contamination of photo receptors until fiber recovery technology improvements resolved the problem." - Georgia Pacific Paper

"Positive. We use virgin and recycled papers interchangeably." - Grays Harbor Paper, L.P.

"Our goal is customer satisfaction. Our recycled papers are made to the same end use standards as our virgin paper product." - Weyerhaeuser

"When recycled copier papers first came out in 1987-88, the pulp was very different from the current pulp used to make today's papers. We have come a long way since then. Recycled paper no longer jams or creates other problems.
      We ourselves own a deinking plant and the pulp there is far superior to what was then used to make paper. We can see at the deinking plant whether the pulp can hold out for making good paper, before it gets to the manufacturing plant. As an example of the high quality of our deinked pulp, the recycled pulp from our Breakeyville deinking plant is used interchangeably with virgin hardwood pulp. It's the same whiteness, brightness, and same characteristics, less a little bit of bulk, which is common for recycled pulp.
      We sell about 30-35,000 tons of cut paper every year with high concentrations of recycled content, at least 30-40% postconsumer. All of New York State, as well as New York City, is now using our recycled copier paper, which contains a minimum of 50% recycled (30% postconsumer). We have not had one jam, problem or concern for all of these users. That's the proof - we are competing against virgin papers and we have equalized the quality of our recycled papers." - Gerry Zampini, Vice President, Sales and Marketing, Cascades Fine Paper

"We recommend the use of recycled papers in copiers and printers for environmentally conscious companies." - Domtar, Inc.

"We have conducted third-party testing on multiple equipment platforms on Boise's Aspen 100 product, and we found the results to be outstanding and comparable to virgin-content papers. Our market experience with Aspen (30% post-consumer content paper) has been the same." - Vince Phelan, Director, Product Management and Marketing Communications, Boise Paper Solutions


LISTENING STUDY: Some users have reported experiencing runnability problems with recycled paper in their machines. Often, they link these difficulties to higher-speed equipment, higher postconsumer content paper, or older equipment. Do you have any experience or comments on whether any or all of those factors contribute to runnability problems, or if there are other factors affecting runnability?

"The present recycled grades available are greatly improved compared to grades that were offered 10 years ago. In the past, a higher amount of groundwood content was used in the recycled process. It has been determined that it is necessary to keep the groundwood content minimal to control post-image curl. Again, it is important that customers are basing their opinion on recycled grades now available and not on experiences gathered years ago." - International Paper

"Badger products have a proven history in high speed copiers." - Badger Paper Mills

"Runnability is influenced by paper properties that are not necessarily impacted by post consumer content. If the recycled paper has been made to conform to specifications appropriate for the intended end use, it should run without incident." - Georgia Pacific Paper

"Higher speed equipment is always more susceptible to runnability problems, regardless of recycle content. Our experience with 30% PC recycled paper is that it runs as well as virgin. Older equipment often have runnability problems with recycled and virgin copy paper." - Grays Harbor Paper, L.P.

"Weyerhaeuser sells paper through a variety of channels and receives feedback from end users in a number of ways. Today's copiers are becoming higher speed and that can put different demands on a sheet than slower speed copiers, whether recycled or virgin paper. If there are performance issues with our paper, Weyerhaeuser takes them seriously and uses our superior technical services program to respond, investigate and correct issues in a timely and thorough manner." - Weyerhaeuser

"In the past, we would run across these problems when the products were first introduced. But then the manufacturer has to go back to the drawing board and perfect the product. We have done that and we have not run across any of these problems for many years. Whether you run into these problems really depends on the manufacturer and how they have evolved in their knowledge and experience in making the product.
      Our experience is that very high percentages of recycled fiber can create a higher incidence of copier machine jams because recycled fibers are weaker than the equivalent virgin fibers. You don't see that with 20-30% recycled content. The higher amount of recycled content is more likely to result in a higher incidence of jams on complex processes, such as duplexing. On simple processes such as simply copying, even the 100% recycled is fine.
      Still, there are ways to compensate for weaker fibers in the manufacturing process, such as by using softwood virgin pulp or by using a higher basis weight, e.g. 20.5 lb. instead of 20 lb. While there can be more risks of runnability problems with high recycled content papers, that has not been our experience, even with our New Life DP 100, because we have found ways to compensate for any initial fiber weaknesses." - Gerry Zampini, Vice President, Sales and Marketing, Cascades Fine Paper

"Higher-speed equipment, higher postconsumer content paper and older equipment can all affect the runnability. High-speed equipment and older equipment need to be properly serviced to achieve ideal performance. If preventive maintenance is not scheduled, runnabiltiy of any paper cannot be guaranteed. In regards to the postconsumer content, we feel this should not be a deterrent to runnability in the above equipment." - Domtar, Inc.

"Our experience is that a machine will get 'accustomed' to a paper over time, and variability is a contributing factor to problems. Recycled fiber is typically more variable. However, it is not my experience that the variability in the fiber translates into huge swings in product quality at the end user. We manage the fiber within our manufacturing process to help deliver a high-quality product to our customers that will deliver the performance they expect. If customers are switching back and forth between virgin and recycled papers, there may be jams - but not necessarily caused by the recycled fiber, per se. It may just be the machine needs to acclimate to the new paper, and once it settles in, the high performance returns. We offer field technical support to our customers to ensure that they have a positive experience with our office papers, including those with high recycled fiber content." - Vince Phelan, Director, Product Management and Marketing Communications, Boise Paper Solutions


LISTENING STUDY: Is there a problem with dusting generated by postconsumer content papers (which can impair the operation of optical sensors)? Or is dusting caused by something else altogether? Can higher postconsumer content create dusting, compared to lower postconsumer content papers?

"Paper dust will impair the operation of optical sensors in the imaging equipment used to detect jams. Most of the paper dust causing this problem can be related to finishing problems such as poor edge cuts and rough edges. These are housekeeping and maintenance problems that are independent of the recycled fiber content of the grades." - International Paper

"This problem is gone. Dusting was initially a problem with recycled papers years ago, but there has not been a complaint about dusting in the last 10-12 years. It is true that dusting is related to sheeter and slitter operations. It may be caused by improper surface treatment, but not specific to recycled papers." - Badger Paper Mills

"Dusting in end-use devices is generally related to sheeter cut/off quality, slit quality issues or dust removal system deficiencies. It may be influenced by total filler content or choice of surface treatment, but no more so for recycled papers than for virgin papers." - Georgia Pacific Paper

"No. I don't think there is a correlation between dusting and recycle content. Dusting is more likely due to high PCC [precipitated calcium carbonate] content or poor cuts on the paper. Stickies are more likely to occur in recycled paper than virgin." - Grays Harbor Paper, L.P.

"Dusting is an issue regardless of recycled content or not. Complaints of dusting could be caused by several factors:
•   
sheeting operations - for example, not properly being vacuumed,
•   fiber coming loose from the sheet,
•   filler, PCC [precipitated calcium carbonate] and other material coming loose.
Because there are these multiple root causes for dusting, each issue must be investigated on a case-by-case basis. Although recycled grades may contain a higher proportion of short fiber than virgin grades, all paper, whether recycled or virgin, is manufactured to strict standards aimed at minimizing dusting. Weyerhaeuser has not had significant issues with dusting in recycled or virgin grade papers." - Weyerhaeuser

"There should not be any reason for dusting. You can compensate for this, you can perfect the product. We have not run across any problems with dusting for the past 5-7 years.
      The answer is better sizing to seal the paper better and compensate for any dust that could come from an alkaline paper. But this issue is the same for recycled or virgin alkaline sheets. You have to size the paper perfectly so that it is strong enough to keep the calcium carbonate from coming out. Recycled fiber is not a factor in dusting." - Gerry Zampini, Vice President, Sales and Marketing, Cascades Fine Paper

"We are not aware of any link between post consumer content and dust of woodfree [virgin fiber kraft process which removes lignin] business (copy) paper. Causes of dusting for paper in the application mentioned include: Poorly bound fibre/filler, Inadequate surface sizing, Excessive filler, Poor cut quality during converting, Poor internal sizing chemistry (ketone migration)." - Domtar, Inc.

"Dust comes from many sources, including surface debris, cut quality, slit quality, and other factors through the manufacturing process and the supply chain. Recycled fiber tends to be more variable and have less overall strength than virgin fiber, and this could result in some stray fibers coming free from the sheet. However, this is minimized by sizing applied to the surface of the sheet. As long as cut quality, slitter quality, and surface integrity are monitored on a regular basis and held within normal specification ranges, there should be no noticeable increase in dust for recycled vs. non-recycled papers." - Vince Phelan, Director, Product Management and Marketing Communications, Boise Paper Solutions


LISTENING STUDY: In querying copier equipment manufacturers, we heard a comment that paper sheets require long-grain fibers for structural stability, and there are too many short fibers in a sheet with greater than 30% postconsumer content, making that sheet less structurally strong. The comment suggested that higher postconsumer content is not problematic in packaging materials, but copiers are pickier in the kinds of paper they'll accept. Is that your experience as a paper manufacturer?

"While it is true that recycled fiber does contain somewhat more short fibers, our paper is manufactured to strict strength specifications. The furnish blend during manufacture is adjusted to meet the strength specifications. At the same time, the copier and laser printer manufacturers have made significant improvements in their paper paths, putting less of a structural demand on the paper." - International Paper

"Badger Paper obtains PCF postconsumer fiber from a consistent source which produces a good pulp with a excellent mix of short and long fibers. Problems which may be associated with a greater concentration of short fibers are not a problem with the Badger product because of the consistent mix of short and long fiber in the pulp mix used by Badger." - Badger Paper Mills

"This may be a specification issue with some manufacturers. We know the attributes that the paper needs to have to perform in the intended end-use applications, regardless of recycled content. Georgia-Pacific controls fiber and paper manufacturing processes to ensure conformance with these paper specifications." - Georgia Pacific Paper

"I don't think 30% is a magic number, but recycled fibers are less stiff than virgin, so other manufacturing adjustments must be made to equalize the stiffness." - Grays Harbor Paper, L.P.

"The relative amount of long fiber (softwood) and short fiber (hardwood or recycled fiber) used to make a sheet of paper is dependent on many factors, but must balance the ability to manufacture the sheet of paper and the performance of the paper in the end users' printers and copiers. In all cases, Weyerhaeuser uses furnish blends that produce paper that meets the end use requirements and the expected post-consumer recycled content." - Weyerhaeuser

"There are ways of compensating for the shorter fibers, including adding only 20-30% recycled and using more softwood." - Gerry Zampini, Vice President, Sales and Marketing, Cascades Fine Paper

"It is true that as post consumer content is increased some strength characteristics are negatively impacted. These include tear, tensile, elongation and stiffness to name a few. However these parameters are far less critical to the performance of copy paper compared to offset (web & sheet) stock. Long fibre is one of many parameters, which affect sheet stability. The key to having a stable sheet (acceptable curl) includes: Optimum fibre orientation, Proper moisture content, Optimum fibre length and morphology, Sheet structure (fines distribution), Surface sizing. Having long fibre length alone does not ensure problem free copier performance. Also of note, there are many types of post consumer fibres utilized in the making of recycled products. Recycled fibre from bleached OCC tends to have longer fibre length than mixed office waste paper." - Domtar, Inc.

"The percent of long vs. short fiber depends on the recycled pulp supplier and their process (especially the types of recovered paper that are inputs into the finished post-consumer pulp product). Our supplier provides us with adequate long-to-short fiber ratios to ensure a very high-quality finished product. In addition, the manufacturing process allows for more or less "refining" of the fiber going into the paper machine. Paper makers will make adjustments to their refining to compensate for average fiber length." - Vince Phelan, Director, Product Management and Marketing Communications, Boise Paper Solutions


LISTENING STUDY: In querying copier equipment manufacturers, we heard that recycled paper is less stiff than virgin, so it presents more of a challenge when duplexing. Is that your experience as a paper manufacturer?

"Our answer to the short-fibers question also applies to this question. Our recycled content papers are manufactured to strict stiffness specifications and perform as well as virgin papers in duplexing machines." - International Paper

"Badger's product has a proven history of successfully duplexing in copiers. Producing the proper stiffness of the paper required for duplexing is not a problem." - Badger Paper Mills

"This may be a specification issue with some manufacturers. We know the attributes that the paper needs to have to perform in the intended end-use applications, regardless of recycled content. The paper should be run to specifications that ensure performance in both simplex and duplex imaging. Georgia-Pacific recycled xerographic papers are run to the same stiffness specifications as virgin xerographic." - Georgia Pacific Paper

"Somewhat true if no manufacturing adjustments are made." - Grays Harbor Paper, L.P.

"There are several factors important to duplexing, including stiffness, dimensional stability and acceptable opacity. Factors such as ash content, caliper, fiber furnish blend and starch pick-up can affect these. Each paper machine must develop a grade recipe that allows them to produce recycled or virgin paper that meets the end user requirements for the factors important for duplexing, as well as for other strict specifications not mentioned above. The relative amount of ash versus fiber in the sheet is first determined by ability to meet end user requirements and then dependent on the capabilities of the individual paper machine and other site economics." - Weyerhaeuser

"We have not come across this problem with our papers. While it could be a problem of high recycled content papers, the manufacturer can solve it by compensating in the production process." - Gerry Zampini, Vice President, Sales and Marketing, Cascades Fine Paper

"Recycled paper typically is less stiff than virgin paper. However, the addition of long fibre in the making of recycled paper can compensate for the loss. Duplexing is not affected by stiffness alone. The key to having a stable sheet was mentioned earlier. One often-overlooked means of improving duplexing is simply to ensure that the paper is loaded with the correct side up in the feed tray. Paper makers induce a certain amount of curl in the sheet, which opposes the stresses imparted to the sheet in the fuser section of copiers." - Domtar, Inc.

"We have done studies of our stiffness and strength characteristics of 20# paper that had no post-consumer compared to those with 30% post-consumer. Although there may be slight differences, they were immaterial and did not affect the performance of the paper." - Vince Phelan, Director, Product Management and Marketing Communications, Boise Paper Solutions


LISTENING STUDY: In querying copier equipment manufacturers, we heard that dusting is caused primarily by inadequate vacuuming. Another reason papers dust more is that papers are now alkaline - rather than acid - based. We were told that an alkaline-based sheet requires less harmful chemicals, and is better for the environment, but an alkaline sheet accepts or absorbs more chalk and fillers in the papermaking process. That chalk residue sticks to the sheet after cutting, and is still on the sheet when it is fed into the copier, which contributes to a greater dusting factor. Therefore, dusting is more about alkaline vs. acid than about fiber content. As a paper manufacturer, what is your experience with dusting issues?

"'Dusting' can be caused by inadequate vacuuming during the sheeting process but it can also be caused by inadequate sheet surface sealing along with the edge cut issues discussed above.
      The acid papermaking process used talc and clay as fillers while the alkaline based process uses chalk which is calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate is brighter than talc & clay which promoted paper manufacturers to increase the amount of filler in the paper to produce an economical sheet that permanently stays white and bright. Since more filler is used in the alkaline process, it is important to make sure the surface of the sheet is sealed. Calcium carbonate is more abrasive on the slitters and knives used in the sheeting process, making it necessary to change them out more frequently to maintain a clean edge cut. If the sheet surface is not sealed properly and the sheeting process is not maintained, increased dusting can occur during imaging." - International Paper

"Alkaline sheets are brighter and longer lasting. Some issues regarding alkaline v. acid would affect offset printing paper applications, such as 'chalking,' but those issues have been addressed between mills and press operators. But as far as office paper applications, alkaline paper allows for brighter and longer lasting paper." - Badger Paper Mills

"Our experience indicates that dusting in end-use devices is most influenced by the cutting and slitting capability of the conversion process and the effectiveness of the associated dust removal system. Initially, as manufacturers began producing alkaline papers, most experienced issues with more rapid knife dulling than with acid-base fillers. Most manufacturers resolved these issues by making the slitting, cutting and dust removal systems more robust." - Georgia Pacific Paper

"True. I would say it's more about alkaline vs. acid, and poor slitting, or cutting of paper." - Grays Harbor Paper, L.P.

"Whether the paper is alkaline or acid depends on the type of filler used and what pH the paper is run to. Clay is more commonly used in acid-based papers, while ground calcium carbonate (GCC) or precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) filler are more commonly used in alkaline. Alkaline paper is beneficial for archival value and for using filler content such as PCC for brightness, opacity and cost-effective paper production. Today, in fact, it would be very expensive to make acid-based uncoated copy paper. The issues of acid- vs. alkaline-based paper production are very complex and really depend on the type of paper being produced. Whether a sheet is manufactured under alkaline or acid conditions, dusting can still be an issue." - Weyerhaeuser

"There should not be any reason for dusting. You can compensate for this, you can perfect the product. We have not run across any problems with dusting for the past 5-7 years.
      The answer is better sizing to seal the paper better and compensate for any dust that could come from an alkaline paper. But this issue is the same for recycled or virgin alkaline sheets. You have to size the paper perfectly so that it is strong enough to keep the calcium carbonate from coming out. Recycled fiber is not a factor in dusting." - Gerry Zampini, Vice President, Sales and Marketing, Cascades Fine Paper

"The advantages gained by converting to the alkaline process are very well documented. Archival benefits, higher brightness and whiteness, improved fibre bonding, smoother surface, etc. Along with these advantages came the requirement to improve the converting (sheeting) process. Most of the benefits noted above resulted from the ability to increase the filler (calcium carbonate) content. Higher filler levels increase abrasion tendencies. Sheeting equipment had to be modified to ensure that high cut quality was maintained. Most converting units are equipped with vacuum systems to further ensure that cut edge debris is removed from the sheet." - Domtar, Inc.

"Dusting is attributable to the factors I mentioned above. I would not characterize it as 'inadequate vacuuming' in that we don't vacuum our paper. Alkaline papers use different filler materials, and they can be harder on knife surfaces. Most paper mills switched to alkaline many years ago, and as they did so, they learned how to reduce surface dust and converting dust (by updating knife maintenance schedules to accommodate the new filler materials in the sheet). Today, there is very little difference in dust in the end product between alkaline and acid office papers." - Vince Phelan, Director, Product Management and Marketing Communications, Boise Paper Solutions


LISTENING STUDY: In querying copier equipment manufacters, we were told that the shorter fibers in higher postconsumer papers cause the paper to curl more frequently in the heat of the copier process. As a paper manufacturer, what is your experience with curling?

"In the past, groundwood was used to produce the higher recycled content in the paper. Groundwood is very reactive to heat and caused a high degree of post-image curl when the sheet was used in equipment with fuser sections. Again, the furnish is adjusted to ensure the post-image curl of the sheet is within an acceptable range. The curl in paper containing recycled fiber has more to do with the hardwood to softwood ratio, the 'cutting' and 'brushing' of the fibers, the alignment of the fibers and the drying of the sheet during manufacture than the actual recycled content. Short fibers, either hardwood or those made by chopping up the long softwood fibers, produce a sheet with better formation but increases post-image curl. A very delicate balance must be maintained between fiber lengths, amount of filler, fiber processing and drying to produce a low curl high formation sheet." - International Paper

"The key to making a quality paper, and preventing such issues as excessive curl, is creating the proper mix of both short and long fibers. Our manufacturing focuses on the positive benefits derived from both short and long fibers, and balances that with drawbacks related to too much of one type. Addtionally, due to the consistent source of Badger's pulp, improper fiber blend is not an issue." - Badger Paper Mills

"Curl is generally related to the paper manufacturing drying processes, moisture targets, fiber orientation and other factors not related to recycled fiber content. G-P recycled xerographic papers have the same curl specifications as virgin xerographic papers." - Georgia Pacific Paper

"Curl of paper is more due to unequal top to bottom fiber distribution during the forming process, and unequal top to bottom drying of the paper. Paper with less stiff fibers are less resistant to curling due to heat and moisture changes to the paper." - Grays Harbor Paper, L.P.

"Curl is complex and is mostly related to fiber orientation, moisture content and drying strategy. Fiber furnish, including recycled content, tends to be a minor factor in poor sheet curl performance." - Weyerhaeuser

"Recycled fiber has nothing to do with curling. Curling is caused by too much moisture. If the paper has too much moisture, it may curl, but that is not a problem we have run into with recycled papers." - Gerry Zampini, Vice President, Sales and Marketing, Cascades Fine Paper

"Optimum fibre length is only one of the parameters required to having a curl free sheet. Excessively long fibre can be detrimental to curl due to the fact that softwood fibres (long) typically have higher coefficients of moisture expansion. It is more important to strive towards top and bottom sides of the sheet that are similar in structure and composition. This will ensure that the shrinkage of the fibres on the topside of the sheet will be more or less equal to the shrinkage of fibre on the bottom of the sheet, thus minimizing curl during toner fusing." - Domtar, Inc.

"Office papers are constructed to reduce the amount of curl that will occur in the copying process. Fiber alignment, moisture, and other physical characteristics will affect curl. As mentioned previously, the fiber length issue can be managed. Our experience is that recycled papers will not curl any more or less than non-recycled papers as long as they are designed and engineered for the intended end use of copying." - Vince Phelan, Director, Product Management and Marketing Communications, Boise Paper Solutions


LISTENING STUDY: Have you done any tests or studies on the performance of your company's copier/laser/ink jet paper in office equipment?

"International Paper has dedicated much technical knowledge, time, and money to the goal of making a sheet containing recycled fiber that performs as well as a virgin sheet in copy quality and runnability. Our end-use product performance testing confirms that our current recycled grades do meet the same high standards for print quality and runnability as our virgin grades do. Extensive copier and laser printer testing is performed continually at the mill of manufacture as well as the main Media Evaluation Lab to ensure the recycled and virgin grades continue to deliver excellent print quality and runnability meeting our high quality performance guarantee. Purchasers of our products are welcome to inquire about the performance of our products, and requests are handled on a case-by-case basis." - International Paper

"Badger Envirographic 100 and 50/30 have been on the federal government's GPO/GSA qualified paper list for a number of years running. That should speak for itself." - Badger Paper Mills

"There have been past studies, such as one sponsored in the mid-90's by the "US Conference of Mayors," in which recycled content paper was evaluated in Canon, HP and other digital printing papers (early '98). Additionally, G-P has worked with Buyer's Lab in Hackensack NJ, the leading independent office products testing lab in the US, to characterize the performance of our recycled papers vs. virgin paper in a wide range of devices. The results of those evaluations confirm that G-P's recycled xerographic papers perform equivalent to our virgin xerographic papers.
      G-P routinely evaluates end-use performance of our xerographic papers both with in-mill end-use devices as well as third party evaluations such as the "Buyer's Lab" study referenced above. The results of these evaluations are generally considered confidential and not accessible by those outside of Georgia-Pacific." - Georgia Pacific Paper

"Weyerhaeuser papers are tested, but we do not have test results that could be cited or published. However, in general, while it is true that a mill would have to compensate for the fact that the fiber strength of recycled is lower, mills are aware of this and know how to formulate papers so they perform well." - Weyerhaeuser

"Our paper is tested at the mill and then tested outside the mill. We sell on a day-to-day basis. We don't produce any virgin copy paper so our recycled paper is competing head-on with the virgin copy paper of other manufacturers. Yet we have been oversold for the past two years and are looking at adding capacity to produce more recycled cut-size papers.
      Making recycled paper has never prevented us from selling and marketing our product. In fact, we present the recycled features in our papers as advantages.
      We have met and overcome the problems that used to exist in the 1980s such as jamming, curl, and frailty of the fiber. We have learned to correct our production methods to avoid all those problems. None of the complaints we hear now have to do with the recycled fiber in our papers. They're only to do with occasional mill issues like rolls not wound properly. But recycled content presents no problems." - Gerry Zampini, Vice President, Sales and Marketing, Cascades Fine Paper

"Yes we perform daily performance testing of copy paper in copiers and laser printers. We occasionally test our product in commercial high-speed copiers. Access to this data will be determined on an individual basis." - Domtar, Inc.

"We have conducted third-party testing of our Aspen 100 product, and we have provided copies of those reports to our prospective customers. We have, from time to time, also provided limited quantities of free paper for trialing within our customers' operations to validate performance." - Vince Phelan, Director, Product Management and Marketing Communications, Boise Paper Solutions


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