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What is the percentage of paper fiber coming from natural forests vs. tree plantations?

LISTENING STUDY: Several responses state a specific percentage of fiber coming from tree plantations.

Currently, plantations account for less than one-third of fibre for paper, but the global trend is for increasing reliance on plantations or intensively managed forests which resemble plantations and towards large scale forest enterprise, with natural forests being increasingly managed for multiple-uses and conservation. - Robins 1996

In the mid-1990s, pulpwood plantations furnished about 16 percent of the world's total fiber supply for paper. Second-growth forests provided 30 percent, and old-growth forests 9 percent. (Total of 55 percent virgin wood) - Abramovitz 1999

Indonesia's pulp and paper industry demands far more wood than its plantations can supply. As a result more and more tropical rainforest area is being destroyed. Between 1988 and 1999 a mere 8 percent of the wood used for pulp originated from plantations, the remaining 92 percent came from tropical rainforests. - Friends of the Earth International 2002

Very low (likely less than 1%) in Maine. - Robert R. Bryan, Forest Ecologist, Maine Audubon

Given the absence of a global information system on fibre sources, IIED commissioned a survey of the situation in 1993 which revealed that:
- managed natural regeneration forests are the single largest source of wood fibre (37 per cent);
- unmanaged natural regeneration forests account for 17 per cent of wood fibre supply;
- plantations provide 29 per cent of global wood pulp
- original conifer forests account for 15 per cent of total wood pulp;
- tropical rainforests provide only 1 per cent of global wood pulp, and original hardwood forests elsewhere in the world provide another 1 per cent. - World Business Council for Sustainable Development 1996

In several countries industrial wood production from forest plantations has significantly substituted for wood supply from natural forest resources. Forest plantations in New Zealand met 99 percent of the country's needs for industrial roundwood in 1997; the corresponding figure in Chile was 84 percent, Brazil 62 percent, and Zambia and Zimbabwe 50 percent each. - Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2000

LISTENING STUDY: Other responses do not specify percentages.

In the southeast, most of International Paper's land is 4th and 5th rotation plantation forest. About 30% of the fiber in our paper products comes from our own lands. We do not track statistics for "natural" versus "plantation" for fiber that comes from other people's land. As the Southern Forest Resource Assessment details, the forests of the U.S. south are generally healthy and sustainably managed. Even with the projected increase in plantation forests over the next 40 years, natural forests (which generally have grown up from abandoned farm fields) will still dominate the southern landscape. Therefore, we are not concerned that the natural forests of the southeast are endangered. We do, however, believe that certain ecological communities within the forests from which we obtain tree fiber are endangered; these communities are catalogued by Nature Serve: As part of our commitment to the Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI) Program, we protect and conserve such communities. In addition, the SFI Program obligates us to manage on a landscape level while also providing wildlife habitat and biodiversity at the stand level of the forest. - International Paper

This information is not readily available. - Stora Enso

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