STUDY Question 71:
What percentage of domestic pulp is from genetically
first genetically modified trees were produced in 1987,
and by 1998 there had been at least 116 confirmed GM
tree trials around the world. - Fast-Wood Plantations
far, no applications for unrestricted, commercial use
of genetically engineered (GE) trees have yet been filed
for forestry. But some GE trees are already quite advanced-for
instance, herbicide-tolerant poplar-and the first commercial
planting of a GE tree could take place as early as 2002-2003.
- Greenpeace International 2000
the present time, there are no commercial plantations
of genetically engineered trees in the U.S. or Canada.
In Canada, only four experimental plots have been established
since 1997. Three were established by the Canadian Forest
Service, one by the private company Alberta-Pacific
Forest Industries. Canadian Forest Service officials
expect GE trees to be planted commercially within 5
- 10 years. In the U.S., there are a few hundred experimental
plots. Regulators at the USDA expect no requests for
approval of commercial plantations for at least four
years. Once an application is received, the agency review
and public comment periods would probably consume several
more years before any approval could be granted. - Campbell
information is not presently available. - Stora Enso
plants in greenhouses prevents spread of the genetic
material, while field trails "release" the plants in
open plantings. Between 1988 and 1998 there were at
least 116 releases of Genetically Engineered trees,
with nearly half occurring in 1998. Most of these are
species used by the pulp and paper industry, and the
majority of these releases have been in the United States.
- Native Forest Network 2000
Trees Stir Debate - Sierra Club, Fearful of Projects
Going Awry, Seeks Moratorum:
Scientists are planting genetically engineered trees
in dozens of research projects across the country. .
. . Papayas are the only approved engineered tree for
market. The rest are still experimental.
About 230 notices of genetically
engineered tree experiments have been filed with the
United States Department of Agriculture since 1989,
with about half coming since 2000. . . . Poplar, eucalyptus,
apple and coffee trees are among those being engineered.
. . . These experimental tree plots are much smaller
in scale than the 100 million acres of genetically modified
food crops planted last year.
Except for the Hawaiian
papaya, no genetically modified tree is expected to
be commercialized for the next five to ten years. Trees
grow much slower than crops, and genetic researchers
need years to compare and contrast generations.
. . . Many field trials
are backed by paper and timber concerns hoping to design
trees that yield more wood and paper. ArborGen LLC,
a North Charleston, SC-based biotechnology company,
said it has 50 separate field trials under way. . .
. ArborGen, launched in 2000 with $60 million from International
Paper, MedWestvaco Corp. and two New Zealand companies,
has grown from five employees to 53.
. . . Forestry researchers
are proud of their work, but have learned to be circumspect
about disclosing where their genetically engineered
trees are growing. In June, three protesters were arrested
after chaining themselves inside a UC Davis science
building to protest tree research. Two years ago, the
Earth Liberation Front claimed responsibility for arsons
at the University of Washington Center for Urban Horticulture
in Seattle and Jefferson Poplar Farms in Clatskanie,
Ore., that together caused more than $3.5 million in
damage. . . . - Paul Elias, Associated Press, reported
in the Marin Independent Journal, Business section,
August 1, 2003